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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 39-44

Spectrum of alloimmunization among multitransfused beta-thalassemia major patients


1 Safe Blood Transfusion Programme, Ministry of National Health Services, Government of Pakistan; Department of Pathology and Blood Bank, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan
2 Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan
3 Department of Pathology and Transfusion Medicine, District Headquarters Hospital, Mandi Bahauddin, Punjab, Pakistan
4 Safe Blood Transfusion Programme, Ministry of National Health Services, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan
5 Department of Zoology, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Usman Waheed
Safe Blood Transfusion Programme, Ministry of National Health Services, Government of Pakistan; Department of Pathology and Blood Bank, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad
Pakistan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_52_18

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Introduction: The development of alloantibodies is a major problem among thalassemia major individuals due to periodic blood transfusions. The current study assessed the frequency and specificity of erythrocytes alloimmunization and also the variables affecting the extent of alloimmunization in repeatedly transfused thalassemia patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Blood Transfusion Services and Thalassemia Centre of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences from August 2017 to February 2018. Of the 475 thalassemia major patients, alloantibodies were screened and identified by 3-red cell antigen panel and afterward by an extended 11-cell antigen panel. The data analysis was done through SPSS version 20.0. Chi-square test was employed. Results: Alloantibodies were detected in 77 (16.2%) patients, 5 (6.5%) patients were found with double alloantibodies. Anti-D (31.1%) and Anti-E (29.9%) antibodies had the highest incidence and were found in 24 and 23 patients, independently. Anti-K antibody was observed in 11 (14.3%) and Anti-C in 3 (3.9%) patients. Anti-C (2.6%), Anti-E (2.6%), and Anti-Kpa (2.6%) all were found in two patients, individually. Similarly, Cw (1.3%), k (1.3%), Jka (1.3%), Anti-Fyb (1.3%), and Anti-s (1.3%) antibodies were detected in one patient each. Alloantibodies were common in males, splenectomized patients, in those who initiated their transfusions before 2 years of age, in patients receiving nonleukoreduced blood and in B and O blood group patients. Conclusion: The proper management and prudence are needed for thalassemia patients due to hemolytic nature of these alloantibodies. New techniques should be introduced to reduce the incidence of red blood cell alloimmunization.


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