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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 22-26

A review of novel coronavirus infection (Coronavirus Disease-19)


Balco Medical Centre, A Unit of Vedanta Medical Research Foundation, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Neelesh Jain
Balco Medical Centre, A Unit of Vedanta Medical Research Foundation, Raipur, Chhattisgarh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_24_20

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Coronavirus (CoV) disease-2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2. The disease started in 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has spread globally, resulting in a pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Muscle pain, sputum production, and sore throat are less common symptoms. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to pneumonia and multiorgan failure. The deaths per number of diagnosed cases is estimated at between 1% and 5%, but varies by age and other health conditions. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets, often produced during coughing and sneezing. It takes 2–14 days to develop symptoms from the day of exposure. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from a nasopharyngeal swab or oropharyngeal swab is the standard method of diagnosis. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors, and a chest computed tomography scan showing features of pneumonia. Measures recommended to prevent the disease include frequent hand washing, maintaining distance from other people, and not touching one's face. The use of masks is recommended for those who are suspected to have the virus and to their caregivers, but not the general public. As of now, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19; management involves treatment of symptoms, supportive care, and experimental measures. The World Health Organization declared the 2019–2020 CoV outbreak a pandemic and a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.


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