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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 98-100

Predonation deferral pattern: A single-center experience from Pakistan

1 Department of Pathology and Blood Transfusion Services, DHQ Hospital, Mandi Bahauddin, Pakistan
2 Department of Allied Health Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
3 Department of Pathology, Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan
4 Safe Blood Transfusion Programme, Ministry of National Health Services, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan

Date of Submission13-Feb-2020
Date of Decision27-Feb-2020
Date of Acceptance28-Feb-2020
Date of Web Publication17-Apr-2020

Correspondence Address:
Muhammad Saeed
Department of Pathology and Blood Transfusion Services, DHQ Hospital, Mandi Bahauddin
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_13_20

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How to cite this article:
Saeed M, Waheed A, Rasheed F, Waheed U. Predonation deferral pattern: A single-center experience from Pakistan. Glob J Transfus Med 2020;5:98-100

How to cite this URL:
Saeed M, Waheed A, Rasheed F, Waheed U. Predonation deferral pattern: A single-center experience from Pakistan. Glob J Transfus Med [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Dec 8];5:98-100. Available from: https://www.gjtmonline.com/text.asp?2020/5/1/98/282678


Safe blood is a universal human right,[1] and safe blood transfusion practice ensures quality in all aspects of vein-to-vein transfusion chain starting from the donors' vein. The donor's health is checked through a protracted procedure including behavioral screening and physical checkup to assess the suitability or eligibility of a blood donor. In certain cases, the donor does not fulfill the criteria set under the national standards, and he/she is deferred from donation either permanently or temporarily. These donors are categorized as “deferred donors.”[2] Deferral practice leaves a negative impact and leads to a potential donor's loss due to negative psychological impressions. The present study was carried out from September 2017 to September 2019 to evaluate and highlight the donor deferral causes at a district hospital blood bank (DHQ Hospital, Mandi Bahauddin) licensed by the Punjab Blood Transfusion Authority.

Every blood donor was properly screened; donor selection and temporary/permanent deferral criteria were in accordance with National Standards and Guidelines.[3] During the study period, 11,898 blood donors visited the center, of which 25.2% (n = 3010) were deferred (temporary = 67.6%, n = 2037 and permanent = 32.3%, n = 973). Majority of blood donors were in the age category of 20–40 years. As viral hepatitis is endemic in Pakistan, among permanent deferred donors, most common cause was hepatitis C virus positivity in 13.3% (n = 398) and hepatitis B virus positivity in 6.1% (n = 184) of the donors, followed by syphilis positivity in 4.0% (n = 121), malaria in 2.4% (n = 74), diabetes in 1.9% (n = 60), allergies in 1.2% (n = 38), over age (>60 years) in 1.1% (n = 36), hypertension in 1.0% (n = 1.0), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 0.9% (n = 30), and no case of HIV. About 37.7% (n = 1136) of the donors were deferred due to anemia; it is alarming that the second most common cause of deferral was alcohol intake 4.9% (n = 150) followed by drug abuse 4.6% (n = 140). Moreover, underweight and underage blood donor frequency was also very high. High-risk sexual activity was mostly noted in unmarried young donors [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Temporary deferral causes among studied donors n = 11,898

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The present study reported a very high deferral rate (25.2%). Multiple studies have reported a low deferral rate.[4],[5],[6],[7],[8] In the present study, temporary deferrals were more frequently present (67.6%). Anemia was the cause of deferral imitating the burden of anemia in the general population, especially in female blood donors. This was in agreement with the prior studies.[2],[9] The present study concluded that viral hepatitis is the key factor for permanent deferral and anemia is the key factor for temporary deferral.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Saeed M, Hussain S, Rasheed F, Ahmad M, Arif M, Hamid Rahmani MT. Silent killers: Transfusion transmissible infections-TTI, among asymptomatic population of Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2017;67:369-74.  Back to cited text no. 1
Waheed U, Zaheer HA. Evaluation of deferral pattern among the blood donors in Islamabad, Pakistan. Global J Transfus Med 2016;1:81.  Back to cited text no. 2
Zaheer HA, Ahmed S, Waheed U, Wazeer A. National Guidelines for Quality Control in Transfusion Medicine. 2nd Ed. 2020. Available from: https://www.sbtp.gov.pk/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/National-Guidelines-Quality-Control-in-Transfusion-Medicine-2020.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Feb 15].  Back to cited text no. 3
Aneke CJ, Ezeh UT, Nwosu AG, Anumba EC. Retrospective evaluation of prospective blood donor deferral in a tertiary hospital-based blood bank in South-East Nigeria. J Med Tropics 2016;18:103-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
Abdelaal M, Anwar F. Analysis of blood donor deferral in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Characteristics and causes. High Temp 2016;22:5.  Back to cited text no. 5
Vasudev R, Kaur S, Kumar A, Singh B, Paul N, Rampal U, et al. Pre donation deferral a single centre experience. J Blood Disord Transfus 2016;7:356.  Back to cited text no. 6
Mansuri A, Patel M. Causes and incidence of blood donor deferral in Khambhat, Gujarat: A retrospective study. World J Pharmaceutical Research 2018;7:728-34.  Back to cited text no. 7
Shrivastava M, Shah N, Navaid S, Agarwal K, Sharma G. Blood donor selection and deferral pattern as an important tool for blood safety in a tertiary care hospital. Asian J Transfus Sci 2016;10:122-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Bahadur S, Jain S, Goel RK, Pahuja S, Jain M. Analysis of blood donor deferral characteristics in Delhi, India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2009;40:1087-91.  Back to cited text no. 9


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