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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Red Blood Cell Alloimmunization in Multi - transfused Patients: A Bicentric Study in India
Amit Agrawal, Ankit Mathur, Sanjana Dontula, Latha Jagannathan
January-June 2016, 1(1):12-15
DOI:10.4103/2455-8893.178005  
Background: It is well-known that alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens resulting from the genetic disparities between donor and recipient is one of the risks of blood transfusion. The antibody screening cells are used to detect unexpected antibodies. The risk of alloimmunization is higher in patients who have received multiple blood transfusions such as thalassemia, other hematological disorders, renal failure patients on dialysis who receive blood transfusions, and females with bad obstetric history. Antibody screening test using 2–3 cells panel is not a mandatory pretransfusion testing in India and is performed routinely in limited blood centers. Materials and Methods: This bicentric study has been carried out to look at prevalence of antibodies in multi-transfused patients who have higher risks of alloimmunization such as patients who have received multiple blood transfusions such as thalassemia, other hematological disorders, renal failure patients on dialysis who receive blood transfusions, and females with bad obstetric history in the North as well as South India. The study was conducted at two blood centers, one regional blood transfusion of North India and one at South India. Totally, 4569 cases were analyzed and 258 patients were selected for antibody screening and identification. Results: Of total 4569 patients, 258 multi-transfused patients were studied. Among these, seven patients (2.71%) were found alloimmunized. The risk of alloimmunization was 2.90% in thalassemia, 0% in chronic renal failure patients, 3.77% in pregnant females with bad obstetric history, and 2.78% in other multi-transfused patients like cancer. Discussion: Regular monitoring through antibody screening and transfusion of blood matched for minor erythrocyte antigens are recommended in these patients.
  7 4,903 304
EDITORIAL
Coping with the burden of thalassemia: Aiming for a thalassemia free world
Ambuja Kantharaj, Shivaram Chandrashekar
January-June 2018, 3(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_19_18  
  6 6,356 493
REVIEW ARTICLE
Thromboelastography as a novel viscoelastic method for hemostasis monitoring: Its methodology, applications, and constraints
Anupam Verma, Hemlata
January-June 2017, 2(1):8-18
DOI:10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_4_17  
Thromboelastography (TEG) is a novel viscoelastic method which provides a comprehensive assessment of hemostasis from clot initiation and development to fibrinolysis involving both cellular and plasmatic components of hemostatic system. Apart from surgery its role is expanding into medical specialties with increasing integration into laboratory settings. TEG complements the conventional coagulation tests in assessment of bleeding disorders. Further hemotherapy based on TEG results has been shown to reduce transfusion requirements in varied clinical settings besides helping in identifying coagulopathies in patients with major bleedings. This review article addresses briefly the methodology, clinical applications, interpretation of TEG results including authors' own experience of TEG in different clinical scenarios and limitations of TEG. Overall, this technique seems to be helpful for evaluation of hypercoagulable state and in detecting fibrinolysis which are difficult to be detected with conventional coagulation tests. Kaolin activated citrated blood samples analyzed within 30-60 min of sampling can provide reliable results in a laboratory setting. However, multiple assays using different activators or modifiers may be required for accurate results in selected cases. The operator should be aware about the various preanalytical and analytical variables which can affect the results including limitations of this technique. The tracing of the thromboelastography should be interpreted cautiously taking into consideration the clinical picture of the patient and results of other laboratory tests. With improved model and availability of more assays it is hoped that TEG and other such hemostasis analyzers would bring in the paradigm shift in the hemostasis monitoring and treatment of patients in future.
  5 8,960 838
CASE REPORT
Daratumumab (Anti-CD38) interference with serological testing: An emerging challenge for blood banks in developing countries
Rasika Setia, Mitu Dogra, Prerna Sachdeva, Anil Handoo, Dharma Choudhary, Amit Agarwal
July-December 2017, 2(2):163-165
DOI:10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_42_17  
Daratumumab (DARA), a monoclonal anti-CD38 antibody, belongs to the new generation of immunotherapy in refractory relapsed multiple myeloma. CD38 is weakly expressed on human erythrocytes. By its intrinsic anti-CD38 activity, DARA also interferes in routine pretransfusion compatibility testing such as antibody screening for red blood cells (RBCs) alloantibodies and compatibility testing. Treating RBCs with dithiothreitol eliminates the DARA interference. We report two cases of serological interference of DARA in pretransfusion testing and how timely information before starting the second patient on DARA prevented the delay in pretransfusion compatibility testing and blood availability.
  4 2,774 98
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Audit of clinical use of red blood cells in a tertiary care setting: An algorithmic approach!
Aseem K Tiwari, Ankita Ratan, Dinesh Arora, Geet Aggarwal, Swati Pabbi Mehta, Divya Setya, Devi P Acharya
July-December 2017, 2(2):109-112
DOI:10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_36_17  
Objective: There have been quite a few publications on audit of clinical use of blood components. However, there is paucity of studies on red blood cell (RBC) clinical use. Therefore, a study was designed to determine the appropriate clinical use of RBC in various departments in a tertiary care setting. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective observational study conducted from January 2017 to April 2017 in a large tertiary care hospital in north India. The study population included all consecutive admitted patients who received RBC transfusion during the study period. Patients undergoing RBC transfusions the in operation theater were excluded. An algorithmic approach was used which analyzed the “appropriateness” on the basis of hemoglobin thresholds, symptoms in patient, comorbidities, and imminent blood loss in a sequential manner. Results and Discussion: Of a total of 1024 transfusions, 924 (90.02%) episodes were appropriate. This was higher than the previous published reports because of algorithmic approach, higher hemoglobin threshold (8 g%), and possibly better informed physicians in tertiary care setting. Conclusion: There were a high percentage of appropriate RBC transfusions in large tertiary care settings.
  3 2,731 191
Evaluation of the platelet cross-matching in oncology patients
Sadhana Mangwana, Nikhil Simon
January-June 2016, 1(1):16-19
DOI:10.4103/2455-8893.178006  
Context: Platelet transfusion is an essential part of managing cancer. Refractoriness to platelet transfusion poses great challenge in the treatment of thrombocytopenic patients. Aims: The prospective study was undertaken to correlate and evaluate the result of the platelet cross-matching with posttransfusion count increment and to ascertain the effectiveness of routinely performing platelet cross-matching in Indian perspective. Subjects and Methods: ABO compatible, leukoreduced, random-donor platelets were randomly transfused to 30 thrombocytopenic, oncology patients. Platelet cross-match and platelet antibody screen were performed using solid-phase red-cell adherence (SPRCA) techniques and corrected count increment (CCI) was ascertained. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16, Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Multivariate analysis and step-wise regression procedure were used to choose the set of best predictors. Results: One hundred and twenty-two units (86%) were negative cross-matched while 20 units (14%) were positive platelet cross-matched. Mean CCI was 28,927 ± 23,007 which was more and statistically significant in females than in males. Four cases (13.33%) showed platelet refractoriness with CCI <5000 including three cases of leukemia (25% of hematological malignancies). Patients with low CCI showed positive cross-match and antibodies against platelets. Conclusion: Platelet cross-match using SPRCA is an effective and rapid first-line approach for selecting compatible platelets as compared to human leucocyte antigen-matched platelets in the treatment of thrombocytopenic cancer patients. Platelet cross-match along with testing for anti-platelet antibodies should be an important component in the management of oncology patients which is less time-consuming and cost-effective than the molecular testing.
  3 3,378 204
Blood Donor notification and counseling of reactive test result in Blood Bank of South Gujarat: A better approach to prevent reactive donors from donating blood again
Snehal G Patel, Jitendra N Patel, Arpit C Patel, Kruti A Raja, Gopi H Dobariya, Amrish N Pandya
July-December 2016, 1(2):57-60
DOI:10.4103/2455-8893.189844  
Background: Besides all other measures like predonation donor screening and testing for transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) on donated blood, another tool for preventing disease transmission by transfusion is to inform and counsel reactive donors about the status of TTIs reactivity and prevent them for donating blood in future. Materials and Methods: The present observational study was carried out in blood bank of Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion at a Tertiary Care Government Hospital in South Gujarat over a period of 3 years involving total 25,020 donors including 353 reactive donors. The reactive donors were informed by the blood bank counselor about an abnormal test result with an advice to report to the blood bank for one-to-one counseling and repeat testing, as well as for referral to the respective department/integrated counseling and testing center/sexually transmitted disease clinics of the hospital for further management. The response rate of TTIs reactive donors after notification of their abnormal test results was evaluated. Results: Of the 353 TTIs marker-reactive donors, 320 (90.65%) reactive donors could be contacted and of which 261 (81.56%) responded positively to the notification calls and attended counseling at the blood bank and 59 (18.44%) informed donors did not respond at all. Conclusions: In the study, due to incorrect or changed contact details, 33 (9.35%) reactive donors could not be contacted and among 59 nonresponded reactive donors, the major reasons were donor's busy schedule, out of city residence, and not willing to visit the blood bank again.
  3 4,644 264
REVIEW ARTICLES
A review of novel coronavirus infection (Coronavirus Disease-19)
Neelesh Jain, Animesh Choudhury, Jayesh Sharma, Venkata Kumar, Divyendu De, Richa Tiwari
January-June 2020, 5(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_24_20  
Coronavirus (CoV) disease-2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2. The disease started in 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has spread globally, resulting in a pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Muscle pain, sputum production, and sore throat are less common symptoms. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to pneumonia and multiorgan failure. The deaths per number of diagnosed cases is estimated at between 1% and 5%, but varies by age and other health conditions. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets, often produced during coughing and sneezing. It takes 2–14 days to develop symptoms from the day of exposure. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from a nasopharyngeal swab or oropharyngeal swab is the standard method of diagnosis. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors, and a chest computed tomography scan showing features of pneumonia. Measures recommended to prevent the disease include frequent hand washing, maintaining distance from other people, and not touching one's face. The use of masks is recommended for those who are suspected to have the virus and to their caregivers, but not the general public. As of now, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19; management involves treatment of symptoms, supportive care, and experimental measures. The World Health Organization declared the 2019–2020 CoV outbreak a pandemic and a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.
  3 7,944 575
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Evaluation of deferral pattern among the blood donors in Islamabad, Pakistan
Usman Waheed, Hasan Abbas Zaheer
July-December 2016, 1(2):81-84
DOI:10.4103/2455-8893.189857  
Introduction: Temporary or permanent deferrals lead to loss of valuable blood donors and blood units accessible for transfusion purposes. Understanding the rate and reasons of donor deferral provides direction for recruitment and retention strategies of blood donation. The current study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and causes of deferral in blood donors in Islamabad, the federal capital of Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A structured pilot-tested questionnaire was sent to all 19 licensed blood banks of Islamabad through the Islamabad Blood Transfusion Authority. Data submission is a prerequisite for licensing with the authority. The study was conducted between January and December 2015. Results: Most of the deferrals were because of anemia (41%), which was more prevalent in females. Other common causes for deferral in our study were underweight, low blood pressure, and under/overage. Less common causes were the use of certain medications, recent blood donation, history of fainting, and fear of needle. Conclusion: It is imperative to investigate the rate and reasons of donor deferral to guide the recruitment and retention efforts. Donor sensitization on the criteria of recruitment needs to be addressed on priority basis through the public/donor awareness campaigns.
  3 2,772 161
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Development of a national thalassemia policy in Pakistan
Hasan Abbas Zaheer, Usman Waheed
January-June 2017, 2(1):69-70
DOI:10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_53_16  
  2 1,977 97
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Verification of column agglutination technology with conventional tube technology for naturally occurring antibody titration
Nidhi Mehta, Ishita R Chakraborty, Minal Rane, Vijayata Ambre
July-December 2016, 1(2):46-50
DOI:10.4103/2455-8893.189846  
Background: Pre-transfusion compatibility testing is performed in order to prevent transfusion of incompatible donor red cells that might result in an immune mediated hemolytic transfusion reaction, thereby forming a critical element in the process of transfusion to enhance blood safety. Titers are generally determined with a semi-quantitative assay by serial double-fold dilution. Several different techniques have been employed for titration, of which the conventional tube test (CTT) and column gel card test –Column Agglutination Technique (CAT) are the most frequently used. Historically, CTT has been used as the standard technique for immunohaematological studies, such as direct antihuman globulin test for the diagnosis of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and in screening for specific antibodies in transfusion medicine. Study Design and Methods: For this study, 51 plasma samples from donors were subjected to antibody titration using the two techniques CAT and CTT. For the purpose of standardization and reproducibility of results, all 51 samples were tested by two technicians and the results obtained were a total of 70 antibody titers. Dilutions were continued to a titer of 1:1024 with the aim of allowing for at least two negative tubes beyond the titer end-point. The statistical analysis of the data has been done in MS-Excel. Results: Out of the 70 titer samples, 57 samples showed identical titer values in the methods performed by both the technicians. 8 samples showed titer values higher in Technician 2 by one dilution as compared to Technician 1, whereas 5 samples showed titer values lower in Technician 2 when compared to Technician 1 (one dilution low in 4 samples and two dilutions low in 1 sample). Conlcusion: CAT titers demonstrated up to a twofold difference as compared to CTT titres, as demonstrated in the figures presented. This disparity is not unusual and can be attributed to the lack of standardization which can be reduced by Column Agglutination Technology. CAT uses specific volumes of red blood cells and the reagents are dispensed by pipettes. Also, the procedure is technically simpler due to the elimination of washing steps and results in well-defined end points. Column Agglutination Technique offers not only sensitivity, but also the best titer turnaround time, eliminating almost 45 minutes of incubation period alone. The results of testing by CAT are comparable to CTT but have the advantages of ease of performance, better standardization of cells, most importantly stable results and reproducibility. Implementation of antibody titers by the gel method would clinically benefit the management of ABO incompatible solid-organ transplant patients.
  2 5,616 308
Evaluation of blood requisition and utilization practices at a tertiary care hospital blood bank in Islamabad, Pakistan
Usman Waheed, Muneeba Azmat, Akhlaaq Wazeer, Sadia Sultan, Syed Muhammad Irfan, Hasan Abbas Zaheer
July-December 2017, 2(2):113-117
DOI:10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_30_17  
Introduction: The significance of appropriate completion of blood request forms (BRFs) is frequently underrated by the clinicians which results in wastage and increased risk of inappropriate therapy. The judicious use of blood components can be assessed by the crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio (C:T), transfusion probability (%T), and transfusion index (TI). The current study assessed the standard of completion of BRFs and blood components utilization at a Tertiary Care Hospital Blood Bank. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, prospective study conducted at the Department of Blood Transfusion Services, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University Hospital, Islamabad, from January to April 2016. A total of 5957 BRFs received between January and April 2016 were reviewed. The data were entered in SPSS version 20.0 (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) and analyzed for completeness, legibility, and blood component utilization through calculation of key indicators including C:T ratio, transfusion probability (%T), and TI. Results: Out of the 5957 request forms reviewed, only 12.7% forms were completed in full. The overall C:T ratio, %T, and TI were 1.52, 65.38, and 0.65, respectively. The same indicators for the Maternal and Child Health Centre (MCHC) were 10.7, 9.32, and 0.09. Conclusion: Incomplete blood transfusion request forms create difficulties for the blood bank staff in comprehending the requests which may compromise patient safety. Similarly, the efficiency of MCHC blood transfusion services is far from optimum. The Hospital Transfusion Committee can play a key role in solving this problem and thus improving the standards of Patient Blood Management.
  2 3,134 219
Analysis on discard of blood and its products with suggested possible strategies to reduce its occurrence in a blood bank of tertiary care hospital in Western India
Ashishkumar Nathabhai Kanani, Jitendra H Vachhani, Spruha K Dholakiya, Shweta B Upadhyay
July-December 2017, 2(2):130-136
DOI:10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_34_17  
Background: Blood is precious and should be utilized judiciously with minimal wasting. By analyzing the data and the reasons for discard, the blood transfusion service can develop plans to evaluate causes that lead to discard of blood and its components and interventions that can be used to optimize their use by training and education. Aim: (1) The aim of the study was to evaluate causes that lead to discard of blood and its components and interventions that can be used to optimize their use by training and education, (2) to introduce possible strategies for minimizing blood wastage, and to observe and compare the discard rate after the implementation of strategies. Materials and Methods: The study of analysis on discard of blood and its products was carried out retrospectively from January 2014 to December 2016 (36-month period), and the data were collected from the blood bank database system using Easy Software in the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Shri M P Shah Govt. Medical College, Jamnagar in Western India. The results were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007 database sheet, percentage calculated and Chi-square test was applied between different variables with P value set a significant when <0.05. Results: A total of 66,255 blood units were collected during the study period of 36 months. Out of 66,255 blood units collected, 44,617 were whole blood (WB) whereas components were prepared from remaining blood units. A total of 21,638 packed red blood cells (PRBCs), 6840 platelet concentrate (PC), and 14,372 fresh frozen plasma (FFP) were prepared. Average discard rate of the present study was 6.95%. Discard rate for WB, PRBC, PC, FFP was 3.15%, 2.26%, 28.39%, and 5.36%, respectively. Conclusion: To minimize wastage of blood, there should be proper implementation of blood transfusion policies and coordination between hospital and blood bank staff. Strict adherence to donor selection criteria, taking proper predonation history and counseling, software to identify transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) positive donors, and deferring suspected professional donors who have been screened previously may help in reducing discard due to TTI positivity. Process improvements such as technical expertise in phlebotomy, prevent red blood cells (RBC) contamination during platelet and FFP preparation, precaution during thawing of FFP to prevent leakage, and increased use of apheresis technique prevent wastage of blood components. Continued medical education for technical staff to maintain self-audit, tracking quality indicators of processing and preparation of the blood components, rational use of blood and components, and review the blood management system will further help in reducing the discard rate.
  2 6,223 475
A study on knowledge and awareness about blood donation amongst government medical, para-medical and nursing undergraduate students in Jamnagar, Gujarat
Ashishkumar Nathabhai Kanani, Jitendra H Vachhani, Shweta B Upadhyay, Spruha K Dholakiya
January-June 2018, 3(1):46-51
DOI:10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_1_18  
Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the reasons for blood donation and knowledge about blood donation among medical science undergraduate students. Materials and Methods: A random cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 government medical sciences' undergraduate students in Jamnagar during the period of 3 months (February 2017 to April 2017). It constitutes of MBBS, Dental, Ayurvedic, Physiotherapy, and Nursing College. A predesigned, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was devised to collect data. Data were collected after obtaining informed consent. Ethical clearance from the institute was obtained before the study. The results were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007 database sheet, and percentage and Chi-square test were applied to calculate association between different variables with P value set as significant when <0.05. Results: The response was gathered from a total of 500 respondents who voluntarily participated in the study. Out of them, 31.52% (n = 165) males and 14.03% (n = 335) females donated blood in their lifetime. Among MBBS students, 90.19% (n = 1100) had shown a good level of knowledge (given a positive response), whereas dental, ayurvedic, physiotherapy, and nursing student respondents showed the same by 78.27%, 71.64%, 89.55%, and 76.27%, respectively. Among factors that hindered the study cases from donating blood, the most important was that they were never approached by anyone (52.2% - whenever required) for blood donation. Conclusion: The conclusion of the present study indicates a greater awareness among the medical and physiotherapy students in comparison to nursing, dental, and ayurvedic students. Hence, these sectors need more targeted attempts to increase awareness and motivation among these masses, which will eventually enable us to increase the spectrum of motivated donors among the common people population.
  2 14,409 504
Various aspects of plateletpheresis: Its impact on donor and patients
Dibyajyoti Sahoo, Smita Mahapatra, Pankaj Parida, Rashmita Panigrahi
July-December 2017, 2(2):149-154
DOI:10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_24_17  
Background and Aim: Platelet transfusion plays an important role in the treatment of hematological, oncological, surgical, and transplant patients. Aphaeresis technology is widely available in the world and some part of India, but it is new for our region. The present study aims at various aspects of plateletpheresis including donor safety, donor hematological changes following single donor platelet (SDP) donation, quality of product, and impact on patient following SDP transfusion. Materials and Methods: Preprocedural hematological count such as total platelet count (TPC), hemoglobin, red blood cells, and white blood cells count was recorded. All donors were observed for adverse donor reactions. Postdonation (after 30 min) sample was drawn to see the hematological parameters and compared to that of pre donation hematological parameters. Quality control of all SDP products was done. All recipients were observed for any transfusion reactions. Post 24 h transfusion sample was obtained from the SDP recipient and compared to that of pretransfusion sample to see the platelet increment. Results: A total of 135 plateletpheresis procedures were performed on cell separator. SDP was collected from the donors as per standard operating procedure. All donors were observed for adverse donor reaction. We found an adverse event with one donor. There was decrease in mean value of all hematological parameters in the postdonation sample. There was no thrombocytopenia either clinically or from laboratory value. Similar trend was seen with double yield collection. Mean acid citrate dextrose (ACD) used was 328, mean blood volume processed 3385 ml, mean product volume was 249 ml, mean time was 76.8 min during the procedure. Quality control of all SDP products was done. Mean yield was found to be 4.18 ± 0.95 × 1011 per unit. A positive correlation was seen between pre TPC of donor and product yield. Post 24 h transfusion sample was obtained from the SDP recipient and compared to that of pretransfusion sample to see the platelet increment. We observed mean increment of platelet count to be 76.15 × 109/L. Overall therapeutic benefit was observed in all cases. Conclusion: The study found that plateletpheresis procedure is very safe from donor point of view and SDP product is effective from recipient's point of view.
  2 4,389 289
REVIEW ARTICLE
Noninvasive fetal RHD genotyping from maternal plasma
Disha S Parchure, Swati S Kulkarni
January-June 2016, 1(1):21-28
DOI:10.4103/2455-8893.178007  
Alloimmunization to antigens of Rh blood group system is of clinical relevance during pregnancy. Despite the use of antenatal anti-D immunoglobulin prophylaxis, some proportion of RhD-negative pregnant women still become immunized. RhD-negative pregnant women with a heterozygous partner can be reassured and managed less intensively if RhD-negative status of the fetus was confirmed. The conventional techniques used for prenatal testing of fetal RhD status are mainly invasive such as chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis and cordocentesis, and carry risk of transplacental hemorrhage and pregnancy loss. The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma in 1997 has opened up new possibilities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. With the use of real time polymerase chain reaction technology, circulating fetal DNA has been detected robustly in the plasma of pregnant women, even in the first trimester of pregnancy. Various assays have been developed to confirm the fetal RHD status by targeting the cffDNA using a combination of multiple RHD exons. The commonly used exons are 4, 5, 7, and 10. Common causes leading to discordant results in fetal RHD typing are low fetal DNA concentration due to extraction inefficiency, lack of fetal DNA control, silent maternal RHD alleles, and manual error. False negative results can prove critical in case of alloimmunized pregnancies and hence use of appropriate controls and strict reporting criteria is important to increase the sensitivity of the assay. Owing to the wide genetic variation of the Rh blood group system, the development of fetal genotyping strategies according to ethnic origin of the patients would further increase the sensitivity. Fetal blood group genotyping by noninvasive method is safe, and numerous groups have reported fetal RHD genotyping in D-negative mothers with close to 100% accuracy. Noninvasive fetal RHD typing can be performed in RhD-negative alloimmunized and nonimmunized pregnancies to decide on clinical management and to restrict the anti-D immunoglobulin prophylaxis, respectively. Thus, the introduction of this test for screening all RHD-negative pregnant women is highly desirable.
  2 3,931 216
REVIEW ARTICLES
Social marketing of voluntary blood donation/organ donation
Amit Agrawal
July-December 2016, 1(2):69-71
DOI:10.4103/2455-8893.189856  
Social marketing is the use of marketing principles and techniques to influence a target audience to voluntarily accept, reject, modify, or abandon a behaviour for the benefit of individuals, groups, or society as a whole. Voluntary Blood donation/Organ donation is an ongoing movement. World over, it is well recognised that collection of blood only from voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low- risk populations is an important measure for ensuring safe blood. There is also the problem in the realm of organ donation – due to the shortage of organs and donors for stem cells many thousands of patients are dying globally.The concept of social marketing will add donors to pool and help in overcoming deficiency over period of time.
  2 7,555 377
Current status of blood banks in India
Vikas Bhatia, Babita Raghuwanshi, Jyotiranjan Sahoo
July-December 2016, 1(2):72-74
DOI:10.4103/2455-8893.189847  
Despite the current advances in technology in health-care delivery, access to safe blood and blood products and their judicious use remains a big challenge. There is a stark difference between developed and developing nations as less than half of hospitals in developing nation provide blood transfusion services. While the health sector in India has made outstanding accomplishments in the past few decades, it has not reciprocated sufficiently to fulfil the country's objective on blood transfusion facilities. Indian blood transfusion network is plagued by inadequacy of blood storage centers, dominance of private sector over public sectors, lack of proper facilities, storage & quality of services etc. Revamping blood transfusion system is the basic necessity to provide basic care. The challenges to overcome such hindrances may be unification of blood transfusion services to maintain the standard or duplication of services, focus on quality of service provided, adoption of newer technologies, strengthening of reporting and information system to maintain the inventory, emphasis on equitable distribution blood and blood products and many more. These changes can be made through framing a strong policy, functional planning and setting standards.
  2 4,546 284
Existing and recommended legislative framework for a national blood transfusion policy
Cees Th. Smit Sibinga
July-December 2017, 2(2):89-96
DOI:10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_35_17  
Blood transfusion contributes to saving millions of lives every year, improves life expectancy, and the quality of life of patients suffering from life-threatening conditions and supports complex medical and surgical procedures. Every country should put in place policies, a legislative framework, systems and structures to ensure the safety, quality, accessibility, and timely availability of blood and blood products to meet the needs of all patients who require transfusion. However, there are numerous situations, particularly in the less developed world, where these prerequisites have barely been implemented. A literature search was done on matching combinations of legislation, regulation, legislation framework, with blood and blood transfusion, which resulted in almost exclusively references with respect to national and international legislation. The Ministry of Health should provide effective leadership and governance in developing a national blood system that is fully integrated into the health-care system. Essential functions of a national blood system include policy formulation, a legislation framework spelling out the principles and boundaries, standard setting, strategic and operational planning, provision of resources and national coordination, and management to ensure an adequate supply of blood and blood products and safe clinical transfusion. The structure of the national blood system will depend on the organization and level of development of the health-care system. However, all critical activities within a national blood system should be coordinated nationally to promote uniform standards, economies-of-scale, consistency in quality and safety of blood and blood products. and best transfusion practices. Keys are formulation and oversight of the implementation of the national blood policy and strategic plan; defining the roles, responsibilities, and accountability of institutions; and setting national standards for blood and blood products, services, processes, and systems; defining requirements for the registration, licensing, and operation.
  2 3,650 166
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Optimization of blood transfusion services: Analysis of blood requisition and utilization practices in cardiac surgical patients in a tertiary care hospital, India
Sadhana Mangwana, Neha Bedi, Pinky Yadav, Rakesh Chugh
January-June 2017, 2(1):47-51
DOI:10.4103/2468-8398.202713  
Objective: Blood products are vital resources to health-care institutions with constantly growing demands. Gross over-ordering of blood causes exhaustion of valuable supplies and resources and add financial burden to patients undergoing surgical procedure. Aims: Study was undertaken to evaluate blood requisition, utilization, and management in cardiac surgery patients in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Prospective study was conducted in cardiac surgery patients over 3 years from 2013 to 2015. Blood utilization indices were computed. Cross match to transfusion ratio (C:T) ratio of 2.0 and below, transfusion index (TI) value of 0.5 or more, and transfusion probability (%T) value of 30% and above were considered indicative of significant blood usage. Statistical analysis was done using Student's t-test. Results: During the study, a total of 15,392 patients' requisitions were received. Out of 25,190 units of blood cross-matched, 18,741 units were issued (C:T ratio 1.34) implying that overall 25.60% of blood was unutilized. From a total of 2752 units cross-matched for cardiac surgery cases, only 1296 units were transfused with C:T Ratio 2.12 implying that 52.91% of blood was unutilized which was much higher and statistically highly significant than in total patients. Overall TI was 1.22 and %T as 83.07% while for cardiac patients, TI was 2.32 with %T as 85.84%. Conclusions: Blood transfusion plays a major role in resuscitation and management of cardiac surgery patients. Blood transfusion services need to adopt blood conserving policies. Efforts should be made to adopt more conservative transfusion thresholds, conduct regular auditing, and periodic feedback to improve blood ordering, handling, distribution, and utilization practices of this scarce resource.
  2 4,160 285
SPECIAL COMMUNICATIONS
Thalassemia in Pakistan: A forward-looking solution to a serious health issue
Hasan Abbas Zaheer, Usman Waheed, Yetmgeta Eyayou Abdella, Frank Konings
January-June 2020, 5(1):108-110
DOI:10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_72_19  
  2 5,177 251
COMMENTARY
Daratumumab affecting the pre-transfusion testing: Approach to finding compatible RBC unit!
Aseem K Tiwari, Geet Aggarwal
July-December 2017, 2(2):166-167
DOI:10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_44_17  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency and methemoglobin concentration in blood donors in a Nigerian Tertiary hospital-based blood bank
John C Aneke, Nancy C Ibeh, Chide E Okocha, Ebelechukwu Orakpor
July-December 2017, 2(2):137-142
DOI:10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_21_17  
Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme deficiency and methemoglobinemia adversely impact on blood transfusion safety by significantly increasing blood storage lesion. Objective: To determine G6PD enzyme deficiency and methemoglobin levels among blood donors in a tertiary hospital-based blood bank in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: One hundred blood donors who met the criteria for blood donation were prospectively studied. Two milliliters of venous blood was collected from each participant into potassium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid specimen containers and analyzed for G6PD status and methemoglobin levels by spectrophotometry, on the same day of sample collection. Results: Among the donors, 43% had normal G6PD activity (9.32 ± 2.26 U/gHb), 44% had partially enzyme deficiency (4.92 ± 1.33 U/gHb), while 13% had total deficiency (0.47 ± 3.49 U/gHb); these were statistically different (P < 0.001). Methemoglobin concentration was elevated in 25% of study participants (3.05 ± 2.30%), while it was normal in 75% (0.99% ± 0.60%); these differences were statistically different (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A significant proportion of our blood donor set has G6PD enzyme deficiency (partial or total) as well as evidence of oxidation of hemoglobin; these findings have adverse implications on transfusion safety.
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Monitoring errors in a blood bank immunohematology laboratory: Implementing strategies for safe blood transfusion
Sudipta Sekhar Das, Ritam Chakrabarty, RU Zaman
July-December 2017, 2(2):118-123
DOI:10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_40_17  
Background: Errors occurring at patient bedside during specimen collection are the most common causes of adverse outcomes. We planned this prospective study to estimate the incidence and nature of transfusion errors, identify the source, site of occurrence, and assess the underlying problems in the system with the aim to prevent the potentially fatal human error. Materials and Methods: The study was performed over a period of 5 years at a hospital based blood transfusion service where all errors and discrepancies both in the recipient and donor samples were reported into an 'incident and error reporting register' and then analyzed. Results: While a total of 72,381 patient samples were received for pretransfusion testing, 43,762 samples were from blood donors for ABO and Rh grouping. A total of 79782 blood components were issued to patients during the study. Out of 229 errors in the blood transfusion chain, 164 (0.22% of total requisitions and 0.21% of total component issued) were reported in patient pretransfusion samples, and 65 errors (0.15%) were reported in donor samples. Majority of the errors were clerical in nature and related to human errors. Of the 164 errors in pretransfusion testing samples, 107 (65.2) were observed in night shift. The overall error frequency per 1000 requisitions was 2.26. Conclusion: Near miss event reporting can prevent potential transfusion associated mortality and morbidity caused by simple human ignorance. A good error reporting not only helps in accurate collection and analysis of data but also makes recommendations that improve transfusion safety.
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Recipient hemovigilance study in a university teaching hospital of South India: An institutional report for the year 2014–2015
Pallavi Prakash, Vijaya Basavaraj, Rashmi B Kumar
July-December 2017, 2(2):124-129
DOI:10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_32_17  
Background and Aim: Blood transfusion plays an important role in improving the health and saves lives. However, it is a double-edged sword, which should be used judiciously as it is also inherently embedded with adverse reactions ranging in severity from minor to life threatening events. Haemovigilance programme of India (HvPI) aims to ensure the transfusion safety by monitoring every step of transfusion process from donor to recipient. Recipient hemovigilance is reporting of adverse transfusion reactions (ATRs) in the patient. Contributing to this program as registered member, this study aimed to determine the frequency and type of ATRs in blood recipients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Transfusion Medicine of a University Teaching Hospital of South India. This was a retrospective, observational study in which all ATRs reported by the department to HvPI observed in patients admitted in various clinical departments over a period of 24 months (January 2014 to December 2015) were reviewed and analyzed. Results: During the study, a total of 31,687 blood and blood components were issued, out of which a total of 66 (0.2%) ATRs were reported. The most common type of reaction observed was febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR) 54.55% (n = 36), followed by allergic 33.33% (n = 22). The other reactions observed were nonspecific reactions 9.09% (n = 6), acute hemolytic reaction 1.52% (n = 1), and mixed type reaction of FNHTR and allergic reaction in 1.52% (n = 1). No case of transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, anaphylaxis, and transfusion-related sepsis was reported. The ATRs were seen mostly with packed red blood cells (78.8%). Conclusion: The frequency of ATR in our institution was 0.2%. Febrile and allergic reactions were the most common type.
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* Source: CrossRef